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Backbone.js is a lightweight JavaScript MVC framework. The default transport mechanism for CRUD operations is XHR. Socket.io is a Node.js Web Socket server. This article provides an overview of using socket.io as the transport mechanism for Backbone.js CRUD operations via a custom Backbone.sync method.

The native JavaScript String.length is a count of 16 bit code points in a string, which can present a problem in some cases when counting characters and splitting strings in internationalized web applications because some characters are comprised of two code points.

The HTML5 cache manifest is the caching mechanism for the W3C’s specification for offline web applications.  Files cached by the manifest are not deleted when a user clears the standard browser cache, which makes the manifest a more persistent method for caching static assets such as CSS, JavaScript, and images for online web applications.